<環境用語A~Z>Glossary LEED V4 (c)

carbon offset


a unit of carbon dioxide equivalent that is reduced, avoided, or sequestered to compensate for emissions occurring elsewhere (World Resources Institute)

別の場所で発生する二酸化炭素排出量を相殺するために、削減、発生防止、隔離される二酸化炭素の等価量(世界資源研究所/ World Resources Institute)。

chain of custody (CoC)


a procedure that tracks a product from the point of harvest or extraction to its end use, including all successive stages of processing, transformation, manufacturing, and distribution




an intensive, multiparty workshop that brings people from different disciplines and backgrounds together to explore, generate, and collaboratively produce design options


chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based refrigerant


a fluid, containing hydrocarbons, that absorbs heat from a reservoir at low temperatures and rejects heat at higher temperatures. When emitted into the atmosphere, CFCs cause depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.

低温にて熱を吸収し、高温にてその熱を放出する炭化水素を含む液体。 大気中に放出されたフロンは成層圏のオゾン層の破壊を引き起こす。

civil twilight


the point in time in the morning (dawn) or evening (dusk) when the center of the sun is geometrically 6 degrees below the horizon. Under good weather conditions, civil twilight is the best time to distinguish terrestrial objects clearly. Before civil twilight in the morning and after civil twilight in the evening, artificial illumination normally is required to carry on ordinary outdoor activities.

朝(夜明け)または夕方(夕暮れ)の、太陽高度が-6°となる時刻。 天候条件が良いと、薄明時刻は、地物をはっきり見分けるのに最適な時間である。 朝の薄明時刻前と、夕方の薄明時刻後では、通常、一般的な屋外作業を行う際には人工照明が必要となる。

classroom or core learning space


a space that is regularly occupied and used for educational activities. In such space, the primary functions are teaching and learning, and good speech communication is critical to students’ academic achievement. (Adapted from ANSI S12.60)

教育活動のため定常的に使われるスペース。 このようなスペースでの主な機能は、教えることと学ぶことであり、会話での良いコミュニケーションが生徒の学力向上には必須である。 (ANSI S12.60より)

clean waste


nonhazardous materials left over from construction and demolition. Clean waste excludes lead and asbestos.

建設や解体で発生する無害の材料。 クリーン廃棄物には、鉛やアスベストは含まない。

clear glazing


glass that is transparent and allows a view through the fenestration. Diffused glazing allows only daylighting.


closed-loop cooling


a system that acts as a heat sink for heat-rejecting building and medical equipment by recirculating water. Because the water is sealed within the system, some closed-loop cooling systems use nonpotable water (such as recycled process water harvested from an air handler’s cooling coil condensate).

建物や医療設備向けの水循環による排熱のために吸放熱材の役割を持つシステム。 水はシステム内に密封されているため、一部の閉回路循環冷却システムは非飲用水(例として、空調機の冷却コイルの凝縮水から収集された再生処理水など)を使用している。

color rendering index


a measurement from 0 to 100 that indictes how accurately an artificial light source, as compared with an incandescent light, displays hues. The higher the index number, the more accurately the light is rendering colors. Incandescent lighting has a color rendering index above 95; standard high-pressure sodium lighting (such as orange-hued roadway lights) measures approximately 25; many fluorescent sources using rare earth phosphors have a color rendering index of 80 and above. (Adapted from U.S. ENERGY STAR)

0から100までの尺度で、人工光源が白熱灯と比較してどの程度正確に色調を表しているかを示す。 指数の数が大きいほど、その光源は色を正確に表現している。 白熱灯の光は演色評価数95以上。標準的な高圧ナトリウム灯(オレンジ色の街灯など)の測定値はおよそ25。レアアースの蛍光体を使用した蛍光灯の多くは、演色評価数は80以上。 (U.S. ENERGY STARより)

combination oven discharge


water released from an oven that includes a steam cycle or option


combined heat and power


an integrated system that captures the heat, otherwise unused, generated by a single fuel source in the production of electrical power. Also known as cogeneration. (Adapted from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

単一の燃料源により発電を行い、利用可能な熱も取り出す統合システム。 コジェネレーションとも呼ばれる。(米国環境保護庁より)

commingled waste混合廃棄物 building waste streams that are combined on the project site and hauled away for sorting into recyclable streams. Also known as single-stream recycling.

プロジェクト敷地で混合して排出され、リサイクルのために運ばれて、後から分類される建設廃棄物。 シングルストリームリサイクルとも呼ばれる。

commissioning (Cx)


the process of verifying and documenting that a building and all of its systems and assemblies are planned, designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained to meet the owner’s project requirements


commissioning authority (CxA)


the individual designated to organize, lead, and review the completion of commissioning process activities. The CxA facilitates communication among the owner, designer, and contractor to ensure that complex systems are installed and function in accordance with the owner’s project requirements.




the measurement of the level of dissolved solids in water, using the ability of an electric current to pass through water. Because it is affected by temperature, conductivity is measured at 25°C for standardization.

水に溶解している固形物のレベルを、電流の水中通過能力を利用して測定した値。 温度に影響されるため、導電率は、25℃で測定するよう規定されている。

conventional irrigation


a region’s most common system for providing water to plants by nonnatural means. A conventional irrigation system commonly uses pressure to deliver water and distributes it through sprinkler heads above the ground.

人工的に植物に灌水するための、地域で最も一般的なシステム。 従来型の灌水システムは一般に、圧力を使用して水を供給し、地上のスプリンクラーヘッドを通じて散水する。

cooling tower blowdown


the water discharged from a cooling tower typically because increased salinity or alkalinity has caused scaling. Cooling tower blowdown may be too saline for use in landscape irrigation.

塩分やアルカリ性分が増しスケール〈水垢〉の原因となるため冷却塔から廃棄する水。 冷却塔のブロー排水は、ランドスケープ灌水で使用するには塩分濃度が高すぎる場合がある。

cradle-to-gate assessment


analysis of a product’s partial life cycle, from resource extraction (cradle) to the factory gate (before it is transported for distribution and sale). It omits the use and the disposal phases of the product.資源抽出(揺りかご)から工場の門(配送および販売のための移動前)までの製品の、部分的ライフサイクルの分析。製品の使用段階や廃棄段階は省略される。〈原材料入手から製品出荷までのアセスメントのこと。〉
cultural landscape文化的景観 an officially designated geographic area that includes both cultural and natural resources associated with a historic event, activity, or person or that exhibits other significant cultural or aesthetic values


current facilities
requirements (CFR)現時点の施設要求事項(CFR)
the implementation of the owner’s project requirements, developed to confirm the owner’s current operational needs and requirements


<環境用語A~Z> Glossary LEED V4 (b)

base building


materials and products that make up the building or are permanently and semi-permanently installed in the project (e.g., flooring, casework, wall coverings)


baseline building performance


the annual energy cost for a building design, used as a baseline for comparison with above-standard design


baseline condition


before the LEED project was initiated, but not necessarily before any development or disturbance took place. Baseline conditions describe the state of the project site on the date the developer acquired rights to a majority of its buildable land through purchase or option to purchase.

LEEDプロジェクトが開始される前の状態。ただし、必ずしもなんらかの開発行為や改変が発生する前のことを指すとは限らないベースライン条件は開発者が購入または購入オプション〈将来購入できる権利 〉の取得を通じて建設可能な土地の大部分の権利を獲得した日のプロジェクト敷地の状態を指す。

baseline water consumption


a calculated projection of building water use assuming code-compliant fixtures and fittings with no additional savings compared with the design case or actual water meter data


basis of design (BOD)


the information necessary to accomplish the owner’s project requirements, including system descriptions, indoor environmental quality criteria, design assumptions, and references to applicable codes, standards, regulations, and guidelines


bicycle network


a continuous network consisting of any combination of the following 1) off street bicycle paths or trails at least 8 feet (2.5 meters) wide for a two-way path and at least 5 feet (1.5 meters) wide for a one-way path 2) physically designated on-street bicycle lanes at least 5 feet (1.5 meters) wide 3) streets designed for a target speed of 25 mph (40 kmh)

以下のいずれかの任意の組み合わせにより構成される連続的な〈自転車〉道路網。1)主要道路から離れた自転車用の経路や小道で、幅員が双方向経路では最低8ft(2.5m)、または一方通行では最低5ft(1.5m)のもの、2)道路面にて物理的に自転車用レーンとして指定された幅最低5ft(1.5m)のもの、 3)想定速度25mph(41 km/時)で計画された道路

bicycling distance


the distance that a bicyclist must travel between origins and destinations, the entirety of which must be on a bicycle network.

全体または大部分がバイオ製品、再生可能な農業資材(植物、動物、海産物などを含む)、森林資材から構成される商業または工業製品(食品または飼料を除く)。 LEEDでは、皮革およびその他の動物の皮は除外する。

bio-based material


commercial or industrial products (other than food or feed) that are composed in whole, or in significant part, of biological products, renewable agricultural materials (including plant, animal, and marine materials), or forestry materials. For the purposes of LEED, this excludes leather and other animal hides.

尿または糞便物質を含み、建物または施設内の衛生排水システムへInternational Plumbing Code〈米国規格で略称IPC〉に従って排出すべき排水。 台所のシンクからの排水(ディスポーザー排水とは区別する場合がある)、シャワー、浴槽からの排水は、州や地方の条例によってはブラックウォーター〈汚水〉とみなされる。



wastewater containing urine or fecal matter that should be discharged to the sanitary drainage system of the building or premises in accordance with the International Plumbing Code. Wastewater from kitchen sinks (sometimes differentiated by the use of a garbage disposal), showers, or bathtubs is considered blackwater under some state or local codes.




the removal of makeup water from a cooling tower or evaporative condenser recirculation system to reduce concentrations of dissolved solids




real property or the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or possible presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.


BUG rating


a luminaire classification system that classifies luminaires in terms of backlight (B), uplight (U), and glare (G) (taken from IES/IDA Model Lighting Ordinance). BUG ratings supersede the former cutoff ratings.

照明器具の分類法。バックライト(B)、アップライト(U)、グレア(G)の観点から照明器具を分類する(IES/IDA モデル照明条例(Model Lighting Ordinance)より)。 BUG格付は、以前のカットオフ格付に代わるもの。

buildable land


the portion of the site where construction can occur, including land voluntarily set aside and not constructed on. When used in density calculations, buildable land excludes public rights-of-way and land excluded from development by codified law.


building exterior


a structure’s primary and secondary weatherproofing system, including waterproofing membranes and air- and water-resistant barrier materials, and all building elements outside that system


building interior


everything inside a structure’s weatherproofing membrane


bus rapid transit


an enhanced bus system that operates on exclusive bus lanes or other transit rights-of-way. The system is designed to combine the flexibility of buses with the efficiency of rail.


<環境用語解説AからZまで>Glossary LEED V4 (a) 


abandoned property


property left behind intentionally and permanently when it appears that the former owner does not intend to come back, pick it up, or use it. One may have abandoned the property of contract rights by not doing what is required by the contract. However, an easement and other land rights are not abandoned property just because of nonuse. Abandoned land is defined as land not being used at the present time but that may have utilities and infrastructure in place.


adapted plant


vegetation that is not native to a particular region but that has characteristics that allow it to live in the area. Adapted plants do not pose the same problems as invasive species.


added antimicrobial treatment


a substance added to a product (e.g., paint, flooring) to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Some products, such as linoleum, exhibit natural antimicrobial properties. Despite current practice, science has not proven that antimicrobial treatments reduce infection transfer in building finishes more effectively than standard cleaning procedures. Also known as added microbial agent. See U.S. EPA factsheet, Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides (www.epa.gov/pesticides factsheets/treatart.htm).

微生物の殺菌または繁殖抑止のために製品(ペンキや床材のなど)に添加された薬品。リノリウムのような製品には自然な抗菌作用がある。しかし、仕上げの材料に抗菌薬を加えることが、標準的な清掃よりも伝染感染を減らすことは科学的に証明されていない。米国EPAファクトシート「殺菌処理した消費者向け製品」(U.S. EPA factsheet, Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides) (http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/treatart.htm) を参照。

adjacent site


a site having at least a continuous 25% of its boundary bordering parcels that are previously developed sites. Only consider bordering parcels, not intervening rights-of-way. Any fraction of the boundary that borders a water body is excluded from the calculation.


alternative daily cover (ADC)


material other than earthen material placed on the surface of the active face of a municipal solid waste landfill at the end of each operating day to control vectors, fires, odors, blowing litter, and scavenging. Generally these materials must be processed so they do not allow gaps in the exposed landfill face. (CalRecycle)


alternative fuel


low-polluting, nongasoline fuels such as electricity, hydrogen, propane, compressed natural gas, liquid natural gas, methanol, and ethanol


alternative water source


nonpotable water from other than public utilities, on-site surface sources, and subsurface natural freshwater sources. Examples include graywater, on-site reclaimed water, collected rainwater, captured condensate, and rejected water from reverse osmosis systems (IgCC).


annual sunlight exposure (ASE)


a metric that describes the potential for visual discomfort in interior work environments. It is defined as the percentage of an analysis area that exceeds a specified direct sunlight illuminance level more than a specified number of hours per year.




a built-in, nonstructural portion of a roof system. Examples include skylights, ventilators, mechanical equipment, partitions, and solar energy panels.

構造体でない屋根部材。 天窓、換気扇、機械的装置、パーティション、太陽光発電パネルなど。

ASE1000,250 reports the percentage of sensors in the analysis area, using a maximum 2-foot spacing between points, that are found to be exposed to more than 1000 lux of direct sunlight for more than 250 hours per year, before any operable blinds or shades are deployed to block sunlight, considering the same 10 hour/day analysis period as sDA and using comparable simulation methods




a product formulated from multiple materials (e.g., concrete) or a product made up of subcomponents (e.g., a workstation)


attendance boundary


the limits used by school districts to determine what school students attend based on where they live


average LED intensity (ALI)


the illumination output for light-emitting diode lamps, as specified in the International Commission on Illumination Standard 127–2007

国際照明委員会 スタンダード 127-2007(the International Commission on Illumination Standard 127–2007)に従って定められたLEDランプの光度。