<環境用語A~Z>Glossary LEED V4 (c)

carbon offset


a unit of carbon dioxide equivalent that is reduced, avoided, or sequestered to compensate for emissions occurring elsewhere (World Resources Institute)

別の場所で発生する二酸化炭素排出量を相殺するために、削減、発生防止、隔離される二酸化炭素の等価量(世界資源研究所/ World Resources Institute)。

chain of custody (CoC)


a procedure that tracks a product from the point of harvest or extraction to its end use, including all successive stages of processing, transformation, manufacturing, and distribution




an intensive, multiparty workshop that brings people from different disciplines and backgrounds together to explore, generate, and collaboratively produce design options


chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based refrigerant


a fluid, containing hydrocarbons, that absorbs heat from a reservoir at low temperatures and rejects heat at higher temperatures. When emitted into the atmosphere, CFCs cause depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.

低温にて熱を吸収し、高温にてその熱を放出する炭化水素を含む液体。 大気中に放出されたフロンは成層圏のオゾン層の破壊を引き起こす。

civil twilight


the point in time in the morning (dawn) or evening (dusk) when the center of the sun is geometrically 6 degrees below the horizon. Under good weather conditions, civil twilight is the best time to distinguish terrestrial objects clearly. Before civil twilight in the morning and after civil twilight in the evening, artificial illumination normally is required to carry on ordinary outdoor activities.

朝(夜明け)または夕方(夕暮れ)の、太陽高度が-6°となる時刻。 天候条件が良いと、薄明時刻は、地物をはっきり見分けるのに最適な時間である。 朝の薄明時刻前と、夕方の薄明時刻後では、通常、一般的な屋外作業を行う際には人工照明が必要となる。

classroom or core learning space


a space that is regularly occupied and used for educational activities. In such space, the primary functions are teaching and learning, and good speech communication is critical to students’ academic achievement. (Adapted from ANSI S12.60)

教育活動のため定常的に使われるスペース。 このようなスペースでの主な機能は、教えることと学ぶことであり、会話での良いコミュニケーションが生徒の学力向上には必須である。 (ANSI S12.60より)

clean waste


nonhazardous materials left over from construction and demolition. Clean waste excludes lead and asbestos.

建設や解体で発生する無害の材料。 クリーン廃棄物には、鉛やアスベストは含まない。

clear glazing


glass that is transparent and allows a view through the fenestration. Diffused glazing allows only daylighting.


closed-loop cooling


a system that acts as a heat sink for heat-rejecting building and medical equipment by recirculating water. Because the water is sealed within the system, some closed-loop cooling systems use nonpotable water (such as recycled process water harvested from an air handler’s cooling coil condensate).

建物や医療設備向けの水循環による排熱のために吸放熱材の役割を持つシステム。 水はシステム内に密封されているため、一部の閉回路循環冷却システムは非飲用水(例として、空調機の冷却コイルの凝縮水から収集された再生処理水など)を使用している。

color rendering index


a measurement from 0 to 100 that indictes how accurately an artificial light source, as compared with an incandescent light, displays hues. The higher the index number, the more accurately the light is rendering colors. Incandescent lighting has a color rendering index above 95; standard high-pressure sodium lighting (such as orange-hued roadway lights) measures approximately 25; many fluorescent sources using rare earth phosphors have a color rendering index of 80 and above. (Adapted from U.S. ENERGY STAR)

0から100までの尺度で、人工光源が白熱灯と比較してどの程度正確に色調を表しているかを示す。 指数の数が大きいほど、その光源は色を正確に表現している。 白熱灯の光は演色評価数95以上。標準的な高圧ナトリウム灯(オレンジ色の街灯など)の測定値はおよそ25。レアアースの蛍光体を使用した蛍光灯の多くは、演色評価数は80以上。 (U.S. ENERGY STARより)

combination oven discharge


water released from an oven that includes a steam cycle or option


combined heat and power


an integrated system that captures the heat, otherwise unused, generated by a single fuel source in the production of electrical power. Also known as cogeneration. (Adapted from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

単一の燃料源により発電を行い、利用可能な熱も取り出す統合システム。 コジェネレーションとも呼ばれる。(米国環境保護庁より)

commingled waste混合廃棄物 building waste streams that are combined on the project site and hauled away for sorting into recyclable streams. Also known as single-stream recycling.

プロジェクト敷地で混合して排出され、リサイクルのために運ばれて、後から分類される建設廃棄物。 シングルストリームリサイクルとも呼ばれる。

commissioning (Cx)


the process of verifying and documenting that a building and all of its systems and assemblies are planned, designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained to meet the owner’s project requirements


commissioning authority (CxA)


the individual designated to organize, lead, and review the completion of commissioning process activities. The CxA facilitates communication among the owner, designer, and contractor to ensure that complex systems are installed and function in accordance with the owner’s project requirements.




the measurement of the level of dissolved solids in water, using the ability of an electric current to pass through water. Because it is affected by temperature, conductivity is measured at 25°C for standardization.

水に溶解している固形物のレベルを、電流の水中通過能力を利用して測定した値。 温度に影響されるため、導電率は、25℃で測定するよう規定されている。

conventional irrigation


a region’s most common system for providing water to plants by nonnatural means. A conventional irrigation system commonly uses pressure to deliver water and distributes it through sprinkler heads above the ground.

人工的に植物に灌水するための、地域で最も一般的なシステム。 従来型の灌水システムは一般に、圧力を使用して水を供給し、地上のスプリンクラーヘッドを通じて散水する。

cooling tower blowdown


the water discharged from a cooling tower typically because increased salinity or alkalinity has caused scaling. Cooling tower blowdown may be too saline for use in landscape irrigation.

塩分やアルカリ性分が増しスケール〈水垢〉の原因となるため冷却塔から廃棄する水。 冷却塔のブロー排水は、ランドスケープ灌水で使用するには塩分濃度が高すぎる場合がある。

cradle-to-gate assessment


analysis of a product’s partial life cycle, from resource extraction (cradle) to the factory gate (before it is transported for distribution and sale). It omits the use and the disposal phases of the product.資源抽出(揺りかご)から工場の門(配送および販売のための移動前)までの製品の、部分的ライフサイクルの分析。製品の使用段階や廃棄段階は省略される。〈原材料入手から製品出荷までのアセスメントのこと。〉
cultural landscape文化的景観 an officially designated geographic area that includes both cultural and natural resources associated with a historic event, activity, or person or that exhibits other significant cultural or aesthetic values


current facilities
requirements (CFR)現時点の施設要求事項(CFR)
the implementation of the owner’s project requirements, developed to confirm the owner’s current operational needs and requirements